The writings of geopoliticians Mackinder (1904) and Brzezinski (1997) show that the bloody geopolitical strategy of the British and the USA has not changed in any way.
Short introduction by Peter Hanseler
We are delighted to introduce a new, very experienced and competent author to our readers. Prof. Dr. iur. Karl Eckstein and I have known each other for decades. The Swiss lawyer, who advises Western companies on their settlement in Russia and Uzbekistan, has known Russia since the 1980s. As a former Honorary Consul of the Russian Federation in Switzerland and Professor of Constitutional Law at the Moscow State University of International Relations, he not only has a vast knowledge of Russia, but far beyond its borders.
Photo: Karl Eckstein
At our numerous meetings over the past decades, we have exchanged opinions very actively – not always representing the same opinions. Many of his predictions came true, even unpleasant ones, as today’s situation shows. I asked him several times if he would write for us. Now he has done it: a highly interesting, explosive and compact article, which is eye-opening and makes the events of the past, present and future appear as no surprises.
▪ ▪ ▪
Sir Halford Mackinder – 1904
The British geographer and geopolitician Sir Halford Mackinder (1871-1947), a teacher at Oxford University and the first rector of the London School of Economics, presented his “Heartland Theory” in various writings. First in 1904 in his article “The Geographical Pivot of History.” In 1919 in his work “Democratic Ideals and Reality” Mackinder concretized his statements even more. We found a link at ETH Zurich – the book is more than worth reading.
Halfort John Mackinder – Photo: Wikipedia
Mackinder stated the following: Great Britain was the largest and strongest naval power in the world. As international trade was mainly carried out by sea, Great Britain could “bring practically any country in the world to its knees by isolating it with a naval blockade”.
“He who rules Eastern Europe rules the world.”
However, these golden times were slowly but surely coming to an end. The automobile had been invented and roads were being built where transports could be organized by land.
Likewise, railroads would be built from Vladivostok to Lisbon. In the future, countries would only laugh at the blockade of our seas. Thus, since trade could take place at will without our control, Britain would be exposed to a great danger.
His thoughts can be summarized as follows:
● Eastern Europe, understood as the European part of Tsarist Russia, thus including today’s Ukraine.
● Heart Land, including European Russia and Siberia up to the Sinkiang.
● The world island, comprising Europe, Asia and Africa.
● The offshore islands off continental Europe and Southeast Asia (Japan) and the offshore islands with North and South America as well as Australia and New Zealand).
Mackinder’s most famous statement summarizes his theories in four sentences. He published this statement in his 1919 book Democratic Ideals and Reality.
“Whoever rules over Eastern Europe rules over the heartland.
“Whoever rules over the world island rules over the world.”
(DEMOCRATIC IDEALS AND REALITY, P. 106)
The most famous and influential geopolitical successor of Mackinder was Zbigniev Brzesinski (1928 – 2017).
Zbigniew Brzeziński served nine US presidents – Photo: Wikipedia
Brzeziński was an advisor to all nine U.S. presidents from 1963 until his death in 2017.
He began his career in 1960 as a campaign advisor to John F Kennedy. Born in Warsaw in 1928, Brzezinski was the son of a Polish diplomat who belonged to the Polish nobility and came from the formerly Polish town of Brzezany in what is now Ukraine.
A book that exposes the soul of U.S. foreign policy
In 1997, he published a book in which he outlined the goals of U.S. geostrategy with astonishing candor and clarity:
In it, he says essentially the same thing as Halford Mackinder once did.
Like Mackinder, Brzezinski believes that a Eurasian community – essentially linking Western Europe with Russia – could be dangerous to U.S. dominance.
“Brzezinzki envisioned successive incorporation of Ukraine into the U.S. concept as early as 1997 […].”
There should be no new Eurasian empire that could prevent America from achieving its geostrategic goal of dominating this region itself.
Ukraine is of particular importance in this respect:
“Without Ukraine, Russia is no longer a Eurasian empire. It can still aspire to imperial status, but would then become a predominantly Asian empire, which would in all likelihood be drawn into paralyzing conflicts with the rebellious states of Central Asia, which would not accept the loss of their recently acquired statehood and would receive support from the other Islamic states in the south.” – Zbigniew Brzeziński
As early as 1997, Brzezinski envisaged a gradual integration of Ukraine into the U.S. concept for the decade between 2005 and 2015. For him, the success of this integration is a key point for the continued supremacy of the USA.
Should this not succeed, Russia would become a controlling Eurasian great power – and, as mentioned, would thus make it impossible for the USA to maintain its position as hegemon.
This also makes clear why the Ukraine conflict is so important for the Anglo-Saxons and their vassals that they invest hundreds of billions in it. For the Anglo-Saxons under the leadership of the USA, a Russian success in this conflict is life-threatening: according to Brzesinzki, their global supremacy would be threatened.
“Preventing Russia and Germany from Coming Together.” – George Friedman
The Anglo-Saxon geostrategy, started by the British Mackinder in 1904 and further developed in the same sense by the US-American Brzezinski, did not die with Brzezinski. It is continued in the same sense by the current US geostrategist George Friedman.
Continues the work of Brzezinski: George Friedman – Photo: Wikipedia
A key statement by Friedman goes as follows:
“The primary interest of the United States through the last century-that is, the First War, the Second War, and the Cold War-has been the relationship between Germany and Russia, because united, those two would be the only power that could threaten us-and so we have to make sure that doesn’t happen.” – George Friedman
Thus, it is a fact that Anglo-Saxon, i.e. British and then American geopolitics, are guided by the same idea to maintain world domination. Preventing Russia and Germany from coming together.
Following this strategy, it is therefore logical to weaken Germany if Russia cannot be brought to its knees. This has already been done by imposing sanctions that weaken Germany in particular and destroying gas pipelines to prevent Russia from supplying energy.
Also, the Ukraine war is merely a building block of American geopolitics to prevent what Mackinder wrote in his famous verse:
“He who rules Eastern Europe rules the world”.
▪ ▪ ▪This article was first published on Dr. Peter Hanseler’s blog.